In May 2021, China announced a crackdown on cryptocurrency mining and trading. In recent months, China has doubled down on its new policy by targeting businesses involved in the mining and trading of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. China’s is prohibiting cryptocurrency mining and trading for many reasons, including:
USTR Proposes Reinstating Exclusions
On October 6, 2021, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (“USTR”) announced in the Federal Register that the agency is considering a possible reinstatement of 549 EXCLUSIONS for Section 301 duties on products imported from China that had expired on December 31, 2020.
Diaz Trade Law’s President, Jennifer Diaz, and Associate Attorney, Sharath Patil, are enthusiastic to announce that our article, “An Overview of China’s New Export Controls Regime” was published by the Customs and International Trade Bar Association (CITBA) in its Summer 2021 newsletter.
Our article discusses China’s new export control regime. The new framework is similar in many ways to U.S. export licensing mechanisms. The framework is seen by many as a mechanism to counter increasing U.S. export controls towards China as part of escalating U.S.-China tensions.
Below is the article for your reading pleasure.
An Introduction to Export Controls
Over 95% of the world’s consumers are outside of the United States. Opportunities abound for U.S. companies that export. However, exporting is a privilege and not a right. U.S. exporters have an important responsibility to adhere to U.S. export control laws, including the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”), and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”). Violations of export control laws carry hefty civil and criminal penalties. Exporters can pay hundreds of thousands of dollars in penalties, lose export privileges, and even be imprisoned for violations of U.S. export control laws.
Background on Section 301 Tariffs
A key element of the U.S.-China trade war, initiated under the Trump administration and continuing through Biden’s first term, was the imposition of China tariffs under Section 301. Section 301 is a mechanism via which the President can retaliate against foreign countries that violate U.S. trade agreements or engage in acts that are “unjustifiable” or “unreasonable” and burden U.S. commerce. With regard to China, the U.S. Trade Representative (“USTR”) found that China’s acts, policies, and practices related to intellectual property and innovation are unreasonable or discriminatory and burden or restrict U.S. commerce. Accordingly, a broad set of tariffs were instituted. Section 301 tariffs for goods originating from China have been so expansive that U.S. Customs revenue has nearly doubled from $41.6 billion in FY 2018 to $71.9 billion in FY 2019 and $74.4 billion in FY 2020.
Background on U.S. Sanctions (as of May, 2021)
The U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) administers a number of different sanctions programs. The purpose of U.S. sanctions programs is to advance U.S. foreign policy objectives and protect national security. Currently, OFAC administers 35 sanctions programs. These sanctions programs vary widely – some are comprehensive while others are highly selective.
Background on AD/CVD Investigations
Antidumping duty (“AD”) and countervailing duty (“CVD”) investigations are brought jointly by the U.S. International Trade Commission (“USITC”) and the U.S. Department of Commerce (“Commerce”). AD investigations are triggered when a domestic industry alleges that it has been injured by competing imports of particular goods from specific countries being sold at less than a fair value. Meanwhile, CVD investigations are triggered when a domestic industry alleges that it has been injured by competing imports that are being unfairly subsidized by their governments. The domestic industry initiating the investigation is known as the petitioner while the foreign industry participating in the investigation is known as the respondent.
Background on Export Administration Regulations
Over 95% of the world’s consumers are outside of the United States. Opportunities abound for U.S. companies that export. However, exporting is a privilege and not a right. U.S. exporters have an important responsibility to adhere to U.S. export control laws, including the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”).
Administered by the U.S. Commerce Department, the EAR is a set of regulations which governs whether U.S. persons may export or transfer goods, software, and technology outside of the United States or to non-U.S. citizens. U.S. exporters have an important responsibility to adhere to the EAR. Violations of the EAR carry hefty civil and criminal penalties. Exporters can pay hundreds of thousands of dollars in penalties, lose export privileges, and even be imprisoned.
This one-hour webinar will provide an overview of AD/CVD, U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s enforcement actions and investigative process, as well as a review of EAPA regulations and provide insights on best practices to protect your company in this contentious area of U.S. Customs and Border Protection enforcement.
Background on EAPA
The Enforce and Protect Act of 2015 (EAPA) allows U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“CBP”) to investigate whether a company has evaded anti-dumping and countervailing (AD/CVD) duties in an on-the-record investigation. EAPA enforcement has increased considerably in recent years. In fact, in Fiscal Year 2020, CBP collected $287 million in duties via EAPA enforcement – this is a 500 percent increase since the beginning of the EAPA program in FY 2017.
On April 21, 2021 at 12:00 PM, Jennifer Diaz and David Craven will present a webinar on Anti-Circumvention/EAPA/Dumping Duties & the Spreadability of Cases.