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Counterfeits

Best PracticesCBPCounterfeitsImportIPR, Trademarks and LogosSeizuresU.S.Customs

U.S. Customs – Your Personal Policeman at the Border

posted by Jennifer Diaz December 6, 2016 0 comments

counterfeitMany companies mistakenly believe that registering a trademark or copyright with the U.S. Government provides sufficient protection and remedies, and, therefore, do not take the extra step to record those trademarks or copyrights with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (U.S. Customs).

The processes achieve two completely different goals.

Registering a trademark with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) or copyright with the U.S. Copyright Office gives public notice of one’s ownership of the trademark or copyright. On the other hand, the purpose of recording a trademark or copyright with U.S. Customs is to partner with the agency in preventing the unauthorized importation of merchandise that bears a recorded trademark or copyright. U.S. Customs prevents counterfeit and otherwise infringing products from entering or exiting the United States for registered trademark or copyright holders who have recorded their trademarks or copyrights with Customs. Continue Reading

Best PracticesCBPCounterfeitsIPR, Trademarks and Logos

Yet Another Reason to Record your Trademark or Copyright with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP)

posted by Jennifer Diaz April 12, 2016 2 Comments

TshirtCo-Authored by Jennifer Diaz and Kristina Hernandez-Tilson, an attorney in Miami, Florida, practices in state and federal court, litigating matters of civil and administrative law. 

Whether you are importing goods to the United States, or are a U.S. trademarks or copyright owner, there is a new law on the books that should be of interest to you, the Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015 (TFTE), which was signed into law on February 24, 2016.  TFTE, a bipartisan piece of legislation, is comprehensive in scope. In this Article, we will look specifically at Sections 302 through 311, the section on “Import-Related Protection of Intellectual Property Rights” (IPR). The TFTE highlights the fact that CBP treats IPR as a priority trade initiative.

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Best PracticesC-TPATCBPCounterfeitsIPR, Trademarks and LogosU.S.Customs

CBP Pilot Program Focuses on Pre-Compliance

posted by Jennifer Diaz October 13, 2014 0 comments

IPR CBP is currently taking volunteers for a brand new Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) voluntary pre-compliance program.  The Journal of Commerce reported on the new pilot program here.

Do you agree with my comments?

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Best PracticesCBPCounterfeitsImportSeizures

Large Seizure by CBP Highlights High Margins of Counterfeiting, and Necessity of Recordation

posted by Jennifer Diaz November 4, 2013 0 comments

Co Authored by Michael De Biase 

One of CBP’s latest news releases, dated September 27, 2013, noted that more than 16,000 counterfeit Hermes handbags were seized by Customs and Border Protection (“CBP”) because Hermes took the extra step of recording their intellectual property with CBP.   Not surprisingly, when you analyze the difference between the alleged value of the counterfeit products (reported to CBP) as compared to the suggested retail price of the genuine goods, you have a grave difference. In this case, $295,665 (value of counterfeit goods) compared to $210,785,475 (value of genuine goods).  That’s over $210 million worth of potential profits for the counterfeiters, at the expense of Hermes – a crime in every sense. Because Hermes recorded its intellectual property with CBP, CBP seized this infringing merchandise, and will also have the ability to issue a penalty for the MSRP of the merchandise. Yes, that means a penalty in the amount of $210,785,475 will be coming to the counterfeiters!

Most often, counterfeiters target large luxury brands whose goodwill and name recognition has a certain element of exclusivity.  While some may not sympathize with profitable companies, what they fail to realize is that counterfeiting hurts in a variety of other ways. Counterfeiting hurts consumers who buy products under the false impression that they are genuine, companies whose goodwill is tarnished by the inferior quality of the counterfeit products bearing their brands, and it hurts those who worked hard to build something of substantial value.  In this case, Hermes lost out on, potentially, more than $210 million dollars in revenue.  That is not only felt by Hermes the corporation, it hurts the retail stores and the malls they’re in, the shipping companies, the raw materials developers, and the families of the employees for all of these parties.

Luckily for importers and consumers, CBP recognizes the importance of intellectual property protection and provides assistance in stopping the infringing products at our borders.  CBP’s Intellectual Property Rights Recordation (“IPRR”) system allows holders of registered trademarks and copyrights to record their registration with CBP, so that CBP can police the borders for infringing goods.  Once recorded, it is entered into a online search system named IPRS. According to the news released mentioned above regarding catching counterfeiting Hermes at the border, once intellectual property is recorded with CBP,

CBP officers are trained to identify and interdict counterfeit goods, and this is a great example of how their training and expertise are employed every day in our ports of entry,” said CBP Director of Field Operations in Los Angeles Todd C. Owen

Considering the incentives for counterfeiters along with the potential losses for intellectual property rights holders, companies that import merchandise must consider recordation a necessity. Importantly, when you record your marks, you must go to an expert in this area – as this is your opportunity to train CBP on the methods of policing your mark – and only trained experts can work on this proficiently so you have the best results with CBP, like Hermes did. To learn more about the top four benefits of recording your intellectual property, review this article.

To get started on recording your intellectual property, or if you have any questions on how to best have CBP police your recorded trademarks and copyrights, please contact Michael or me

Best PracticesCBPCounterfeitsCPSCImportInvestigationIPR, Trademarks and LogosSeizuresU.S.Customs

Florida Companies Convicted and Sentenced

posted by Jennifer Diaz June 24, 2013 0 comments

Co Authored by Robert Becerra

In another example of the government’s continuing use of the criminal justice system to enforce international trade laws, three Florida companies and their management were recently convicted and sentenced for importing smuggled toys from China containing lead and containing counterfeit trademarks.

LM Import-Export, Inc., Lam’s Investment Corp., and LK Toys Corp., Hung Lam and Isabella Kit Yeung plead guilty to charges of conspiracy to traffic and smuggle toys containing hazardous substances such as lead, and one count of trafficking in counterfeit goods, in violation of 18 U.S.C. Secs. 371 and 2320, respectively. Co-defendant Yeung plead guilty to one misdemeanor count of submitting a false country of origin label, in violation of 19 U.S.C. Sec. 1304(a). The information, or charging document filed in court, against all defendants, as well as the plea agreements for each defendant can be found on the website of the District Court for the Southern District of Florida. (If you have trouble getting these documents, email me and I’d be happy to share them with you).

The facts underlying the charges, as stated in court documents, are that from April, 2000, until May 2011, a span of 11 years, the corporate defendants conspired to sell children’s products imported from China in violation of the Consumer Product Safety Act 15 U.S.C. Sec. 2068, and the Federal Hazardous Substances Act, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 1263. Some of the toys contained lead, while others presented various hazards such as choking, aspiration or ingestion. The products were imported using false statements on Customs declaration forms and with false country of origin labeling.

Hung Lam was sentenced to 22 months incarceration, 3 years of supervised release and a $10,000 fine. The corporations were sentenced to 5 years of probation. Yeung was sentenced to 1 year probation and a $1,000 fine. An order was entered mandating the forfeiture to the government of $862,500 and all products imported by the defendants that were seized by the government. The press release from the Consumer Products Safety Commission and Department of Justice discussing the case can be found here and here respectively.

This case is extremely important for importers to be familiar with and understand that:

  1. It is vital for importers to retain counsel to assist with pre-compliance before you import.
  2. When you receive any violation notice from the federal government, retain counsel immediately and be sure to address all violations with remedial action and enhanced compliance procedures in an attempt to keep administrative penalties or forfeiture cases from turning into potential criminal matters.
  3. Resolving a civil action through a consent decree with the government does not absolve you of criminal liability.
  4. Once contacted by government officials, retain counsel immediately. Any evidence you provide or any statements you make will be used against you in court.
  5. Repeated misconduct and federal regulatory law violations over a period of years will often result in criminal prosecution of both companies and their individual employees, resulting in federal prison sentences and substantial fines and forfeitures.

 

Best PracticesCBPCounterfeitsIPR, Trademarks and Logos

As U.S. Imports from China Intensify so does CBP Enforcement

posted by Jennifer Diaz September 18, 2012 0 comments

Co-authored by Michael De Biase

With the concentration of US imports from China increasing in parallel with intellectual property rights seizures, companies rely heavily on the government, specifically on US Customs and Border Protection ("CBP") to help protect and enforce their intellectual property rights ("IPR").

According to Global Sources, a leading business-to-business media company and a primary facilitator of trade with Greater China, "US imports from China [are] more concentrated than ever".

Data from the U.S. Department of Commerce establishes that importation into the U.S. is a concentrated field, with the top 500 U.S. importers – 0.4 % of all importers – comprising roughly 68% of all imports by value in 2010. Imports from China, although somewhat less concentrated, are still dominated by larger enterprises, as companies with more than 500 employees – 4% of all importers from China – account for 60% of all imports from China. As concentration increases, the opportunity to trade in quantities that take advantage of China’s economies of scale decrease; thus, heightened concentration is not a good thing for Chinese manufacturers.

While the import concentration from China is growing, CBP is reporting a record number of IPR seizures. From 2010-2011 alone, IPR seizures increase by 24%, and have nearly doubled since 2009. Considering that China is the number one source company of imports, it should come as no surprise that it also accounts for the largest number of IPR seizures, with 62% of all IPR seizures being sourced from China.

Intellectual property rights are some of the most valuable assets of the largest importers, and they must protect these rights. Here are some of our top tips to use when seeking to protect your IPR.

  1. Perform a search to see if there are other companies exploiting your IPR. You cannot protect something to which you don’t own the rights.
  2. Register your IPR with the appropriate U.S. federal entity; whether the Copyright Office or U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, registration is an important security measure.
  3. Record your IPR with CBP. CBP will provide its protective services for a minimal fee of $190 for 10 years of protection at all ports of entry.  There are numerous other benefits to recordation
  4. Know your manufacturer or the company from which you source your products. Find out who else sources from this manufacturer, and determine whether they have had any IPR issues.
  5. Execute thorough distribution agreements or purchase and sale agreements, and try to use letters of credit or escrow accounts.
Counterfeits

Unhappy Holidays for Some International Flight Attendants Courtesy of U.S. Customs

posted by Customs & International Trade Law Blog November 27, 2010 1 Comment

Every few weeks, I get a call from an international flight attendant who wants my help to deal with a huge fine issued by U.S. Customs and Border Protection. The typical scenario is that while the nice international flight attendant is traveling overseas, she purchases some counterfeit, luxury brand handbags, wallets, watches or jewelry for friends, family, or co-workers back in the States.  Flight crews are rarely stopped and searched by U.S. Customs upon return to the United States, so the risk is low. Unfortunately, some do get stopped, and the Customs officer seizes the counterfeit items.  That is just the beginning of the nightmare.

Some weeks after Customs seizes the counterfeit items, the flight attendant will receive a formal written Seizure Notice stating what was seized, why it was seized, and providing an opportunity for him or her to file a Petition. Since the flight attendant typically only spent a few hundred dollars, and the stuff is clearly counterfeit, most people don’t bother to file a Petition, and the merchandise is automatically forfeited to U.S. Customs.

What the flight attendants need to know is that after the merchandise is forfeited, Customs will send a second letter assessing a fine pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1526(f). The fine is equal to the Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price (MSPR) as if those counterfeit items were real. So, instead of a fine of a few hundred dollars for a few, counterfeit Rolex or Chanel watches, the fine might total $100,000, as regular readers know from my August 10, 2010 blog post "U.S. Customs Inflates Seizure Statistics".

Now, the flight attendant (or your regular international passenger with the same problem) realizes that he or she needs to get a customs attorney ASAP to file a proper Petition to get the fine reduced or canceled.  If only the flight attendant had read my January 24, 2010 blog post, "Yes, You May Legally Import Counterfeit Merchandise into the United States," there would have been no seizure, and hence, no fine. 

Anyway, I am always available to help a flight attendant in distress with U.S. Customs. Who knows, maybe the flight attendant will return the favor someday with some extra peanuts or, better yet, a complimentary upgrade to first class.  :))

Counterfeits

U.S. Customs Inflates Seizure Statistics

posted by Customs & International Trade Law Blog August 10, 2010 2 Comments

U.S. Customs and Border Protection is one of the leading Federal agencies responsible for stopping counterfeit products from entering the United States. U.S. Customs does a good job seizing counterfeit products at ports around the country on a daily basis.   These counterfeit products vary from sunglasses to handbags to pharmaceuticals to footwear.  But U.S. Customs’ press releases always use an unrealistic, inflated number when describing the value of the seized merchandise.

For example, last week in San Francisco, U.S. Customs allegedly seized $100 million counterfeit Gucci, Dooney & Bourke, and various other illegally trademarked merchandise from the Fisherman’s Wharf area.  It was originally reported in the San Francisco Chronicle, then appeared on the Associated Press wire to the Chicago Tribune, the Washington Post, and other newspapers around the country.  The Chronicle stated in part:

On Tuesday, they announced the seizure of more than 200,000 counterfeit retail items valued at $100 million – if they were genuine, that is – during what they called the largest-ever bust of retail counterfeiters on the West Coast.

Note the words, "if they were genuine, that is." U.S. Customs uses the Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price (MSRP), which nobody pays, in reporting the value of the seized merchandise to the press.  So, for example, a blatantly counterfeit Louis Vuitton handbag that would have been sold to a customer at Fisherman’s Wharf for $50 may be reported by U.S. Customs to be valued at $1,000, a multiple of 20 times the selling price.

Customs does a good job at identifying, intercepting, and seizing counterfeit merchandise – something it refers to as a "priority trade issue."  Know, however,  that the value U.S. Customs places on the seized counterfeit merchandise is almost always much higher than you and I would pay, even for the real thing.

CounterfeitsImport

Yes, You May Legally Import Counterfeit Merchandise into the United States

posted by Customs & International Trade Law Blog January 24, 2010 10 Comments

Peter A. Quinter, Florida Customs LawyerMy friends tell me one of their favorite activities in China is to buy counterfeit items such as Gucci handbags or Montblanc pens. My friends do worry about U.S. Customs and Border Protection (U.S. Customs) officers looking through their luggage upon arrival at an airport in the United States, seizing the counterfeit items, and fining them.  The truth is that U.S. Customs allows the importation of counterfeit merchandise, but closely follow the rules as I explain them to you now.

First, know that it is generally illegal to import counterfeit merchandise into the United States.  The word "counterfeit" is defined in the Lanham Act at 15 U.S.C. 1124, and the U.S. Customs applicable law allowing for the seizure of counterfeit merchandise is 19 U.S.C. 1526.  That law gives your friendly U.S. Customs officers who are waiting for you at the airport the authority to look through your luggage, and seize counterfeit merchandise from you.  The U.S. Customs regulations at 19 CFR Part 133 give more specific guidelines to travelers interested in this topic. 

What the readers of this blog, and even many U.S. Customs officers, do not know is that it is perfectly legal for a person who visits China, or any other foreign country, to buy counterfeit merchandise there, including one counterfeit Gucci bag and one counterfeit Montblanc pen, declare it on the U.S. Customs declaration form, pass through U.S. Customs, and enjoy using the counterfeit items in the United States.   Of course, you generally get what you pay for, so the $2,000 Gucci bag that you purchased in China for $80 may not be such a bargain, but it can be a lot of fun to shop at a Chinese flea market, and compare the purchased products to the genuine items at your local U.S.-based retail store, or so I am told. 

According to Customs Directive No. 2310-011A dated January 24, 2000, "Customs officers shall permit any person arriving in the United States to import one article, which must accompany the person, bearing a counterfeit, confusingly similar, or restricted gray market trademark, provided that the article is for personal use and not for sale."  Moreover, the Directive states that "Customs officers shall permit the arriving person to retain one article of each type accompanying the person." 

Now, don’t go crazy trying to bring too much counterfeit stuff into the United States at once. There are many restrictions.  You can only bring counterfeit stuff in every 30 days, it must "accompany" you which means no FedEx, UPS, or DHL packages, and it is only applicable to "one article of each type" which means, for example, if you attempt to bring in two counterfeit Gucci bags, they both will be seized by U.S. Customs. And "personal use" means for you the traveler only; no counterfeit gifts for your friends and family. 

Finally, please don’t waste the U.S. Customs officer’s time attempting to explain to him that the fancy watches you purchased are marked "Rolexx" so they are not counterfeiting the Rolex trademark because of the different spelling, or that you did not know that importing counterfeit merchandise was illegal, because now you have read this blog post from "Mr. Customs".  

Just in case you do bring in one too many counterfeit products, there is an administrative process to challenge all seizures made by U.S. Customs, as I described in a previous blog post.